Training With 5 Exercise
Heart Rate Training Zonesby Sally Edwards - from
Heart Zones - The Training and Education
You may think that training is just
for athletes. I absolutely believe that with few exceptions everyone can train
to create change which leads to a good healthy life. Exercise is as different
for everyone as change is different.
Whether you want to change by shedding
a few pounds or you just want to feel good about yourself, then here's a way
that, if you follow it, you may end up on the wellness road to a new
What I'm talking about is Heart Zone
Training, the best approach to all-around fitness I've found. This isn't a
one-size-fits-all concept. It works for a 50-year-old athlete like me, a
60-year old with a family history of heart problems, a 70-year old wanting to
improve strength, or an 80-year old who wants to climb to the third floor of a
building without puffing. It works for a 20-year-old who wants to get fitter, a
30-year-old who has become more sedentary from too much time in front of a
computer, and a 40-year-old who is preparing for a second wedding ceremony and
wants to be their best.
Let's take it one part at a time and
first look at those three words: Heart Zone Training.
That's easy. Your heart's a muscle; you can
strengthen it. It's a use-it-or-lose-it muscle so if you don't do
cardiovascular exercise, you'll lose the hearts functional ability.
A zone is simply a range of heart beats. Recent research has
shown powerful benefits from exercising in several different zones to get
Training is the regime of exercising to achieve a goal. It's
different than exercising. When you exercise you are doing it for the joy and
benefit of the exercise. When you train, you want to accomplish a
Take my 58-year-old friend Sara whose
young grandchildren are really paying attention to her workouts. Today, I see
her reaping the benefits of paying attention to her body. She looks good, she
feels good, and her annual physical give her straight "A"s for low blood
pressure, low body fat and low cholesterol. She's running her grand dads around
You can have similar results. It all
starts with the beating of your heart.
YOUR HEART RATE
Heart rates are measured in beats per
minute (bpm). Our ambient heart rate is that measurement when you are sitting,
relaxed, sedentary and it should be around 70 bpm for most people. In general,
the lower your ambient rate, the better. World-class athletes have ambient
heart rates in the 40's and 50 bpm range.
Your resting heart rate is measured
when you first wake up in the morning before you get out of bed. The lower the
number the better. Common resting heart rate numbers are in the 50-60s but
again, those really fit athletes commonly display resting heart rates in the
30's and 40's.
Your Maximum Heart Rate (Max HR) is
the fastest your heart can beat for one minute. A generalized rule anchors your
Max HR using a mathematical formula but it has a lot of error in it because it
allows it to drop as you get older.
In fact, Max HR doesn't decrease if
you maintain your fitness (it does if you become de-conditioned). So using a
formula based on age just doesn't work well enough. If you have to have one
then use the one that we have found to be more accurate:
New Mathematical Formula Age/Weight Predicted Maximum
Males: 210 minus 1/2
your age minus 5% of your body weight + 4
Females: 210 minus - 1/2
your age minus 1% of your body weight + 0
Let me give you an example. I am 50
years old and weight 130 pounds. My arithmetic formula then would be as
210 - 25 (50% x 50 years) minus 1.3 +
0 (female) = Max HR of 183 bpm
That's fairly close (within 10 beats)
of my actually tested maximum heart rate which is 193 bpm.
If you ever go to an athletic club or
gym and see the Max HR charts you have to be cautious. They aren't very
accurate. Maximum heart rate is genetically determined, it simply isn't going
to decrease according to those charts.
A few tips about Max HR which you may
be curious about. It's altitude sensitive and increases as you go higher and it
also is affected by drugs such as beta blocks and even antihistamines. It
cannot be increased by training and a high Max HR does not predict better
Your Max HR
Important note! Before you self-test, please
read the "Before Your Start" section at the end of this article.
You won't reach your Max HR with these
tests, but they give you a range within which your Max HR probably lies. First
step is to rate your fitness level as follows:
Poor shape. You have not exercised regularly during the last two
Fair shape. You walk a mile or more or pursue any aerobic activity for twenty
minutes at least three times per week.
Good shape. You exercise regularly more than an hour a week or walk or run at
least five miles a week.
The second step is take either or both
of these tests.
One Mile Walk Test
|Find a track,
perhaps at a local school, and walk four continuous, evenly paced laps as fast
as you can in your current condition. The first three laps put you on a
heart-rate plateau where you hold steady for the fourth lap.
Determine your average heart
rate for this final lap. Then to predict your Max HR, add 40 bpm if you are in
poor shape; for fair shape, add 50; and for good shape, add 60.
The Step Test
Use an eight-inch step. Warm
up appropriately. Then, use this four count step sequence: right foot up, left
up, right down, left down. Counting "up, up, down, down" as one set and keep a
steady pace of 20 sets per minute.
Measure your average heart
rate during the third minute, then predict your Max HR by adding 55 bpm if you
are in poor shape, 65 for fair shape and 75 for good shape. That number is your
predicted maximum heart rate.
Heart zones, expressed as a percentage
of your Max HR, reflect exercise intensity and the result benefit. Once you
have established your Max heart rate, we provide a chart to show you your
specific zones. There are five heart zones and they are each 10% of your Max HR
so just fill in these numbers below:
|Percentage of your Max Heart Rate
||Enter Your Heart Rates
|50% of your Max Heart
||( example 90 beats per min )
|60% of your Max Heart
||( example 108 beats per min )
|70% of your Max Heart
||( example 126 beats per min )
|80% of your Max Heart
||( example 144 beats per min )
|90% of your Max Heart
||( example 162 beats per min )
|100% of your Max Heart Rate
||(example 180 beats per min.)
To determine your zone just join
together the percentages and put them in the chart below. It's easy and takes
just seconds to know your heart zones.
|% of Heart Range
||Enter Your heart Rate
Range for Each
||50%-60% - bpm
||(example 90 to 108 BPM)
||60%-70% - bpm
||70%-80% - bpm
||80%-90% - bpm
||90%-100% - bpm
Using the 5 zone
system to plan your exercise program.
1 minute spent exercising in zone 1 = one exercise
2 minutes spent exercising in zone 2 = two
3 minutes spent exercising
in zone 3 = three exercise points
4 minutes spent
exercising in zone 4 = four exercise points
minutes spent exercising in zone 5 = five exercise
To understand the
benefits of each of the 5 zones, and to set up a personal training program,
please continue reading this article.
Inside each zone, there
are different exercise changes which occur as the result of spending training
time "in the zone". Let's go through each one briefly so you know
why you want to train in the different zones.
50%-60% of your individual Max
|This is the
safest, most comfortable zone, reached by walking briskly. Here you strengthen
your heart and improve muscle mass while you reduce body fat, cholesterol,
blood pressure, and your risk for degenerative disease. You get healthier in
this zone, but not more fit -- that is, it won't increase your endurance or
strength but it will increase your health.
If you're out of shape, have
heart problems, or simply want to safeguard your heart without working too
hard, spend most of your training time here. It's also the zone for warming up
and cooling down before and after more vigorous zones.
60% to 70% of your individual Max HR.
reached by jogging slowly. While still a relatively low level of effort, this
zone starts training your body to increase the rate of fat release from the
cells to the muscles for fuel.
Some people call this the "fat
burning zone" because up to 85 % of the total calories burned in this zone are
fat calories which is equally as important.
Fit and unfit people burn fat
differently. The more fit you are, the more effectively you use fat to maintain
a healthy weight. On the other hand, perhaps you've been exercising vigorously,
but not losing the weight you expected to. Could be you've been working too
hard and need to drop back to this zone and exercise longer. To burn more total
calories you'll need to exercise for more time in this zone.
70%-80% or your individual Max
|In this zone
-- reached by running easily as an example -- you improve your functional
capacity. The number and size of your blood vessels actually increase, you step
up your lung capacity and respiratory rate, and your heart increases in size
and strength so you can exercise longer before becoming fatigued. You're still
metabolizing fats and carbohydrates at about a 50-50 rate which means both are
burning at the same ratio.
80%-90% of your individual Max
|This zone is
reached by going hard -- running faster. Here you get faster and fitter,
increasing your heart rate as you cross from aerobic to anaerobic training. At
this point, your heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to supply the
exercising muscles fully so they respond by continuing to contract
This is where you "feel the
burn." You can stay in this zone for a limited amount of time, usually not more
than an hour. That's because the muscle just cannot sustain working
anaerobically (this means without sufficient oxygen) without fatiguing. The
working muscles protect themselves from overwork by not being able to maintain
the intensity level.
THE REDLINE ZONE:
of your individual
|This is the
equivalent of running all out and is used mostly as an "interval" training
regiment -- exertion done only in short to intermediate length bursts. Even
world-class athletes can stay n this zone for only a few minutes at a time.
It's not a zone most people will select for exercise since working out here
hurts and there is an increased potential for injury.
Now I want to
put these zones together for you in what I call the Training Tree. You go up
and down the limbs of your new exercise tree depending on your goals, at your
own speed. As you climb the branches, you'll increase your all-around fitness
and your body will experience wonderful, truly incredible changes. Here in
brief are the different limbs:
As you exercise here, your
workouts will feel easy. Your ambient and your resting heart rate and blood
pressure will drop and you'll see your body change as you develop your ability
to do continuous exercise time. Stay on this limb for 4-6 weeks of training
time before you move up to the next branch.
Workouts should be slow and easy and
can include walking, biking, swimming, skating, and circuit training. Aim for
three 30-minute workouts a week with about 10 minutes in Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone
You're training to develop a base
level of strength and endurance which will sustain a workout without a great
deal of fatigue and muscle soreness. When the routine feels too easy, reach up
and grab that next branch.
expand on your systems ability to sustain longer training periods, what we can
improved endurance. Your body can now carry more oxygen to your muscles and
break into your fat storage cells to burn fat calories as it adapts to it's new
workload. You'll find yourself going the same distance at a lower heart rate --
proof in fact of increasing fitness.
Train her for four to six weeks.
Activities might include brisk walking, biking, swimming, easy jogging,
low-impact aerobics. Aim for five 30-minute sessions a week. For each workout,
spend 5 minutes in Zone 1, 10 minutes in Zone 2 and 15 minutes in Zone
This adds resistance
training which will make you stronger by increasing the work. For example, add
hills as you walk, start some running, stair climbing or weight
Perform four or five training sessions
of 30-40 minutes each week divided as follows: Zone 1, 5 minutes; Zone 2, 10
minutes; Zone 3, 20 minutes; Zone 4, 5 minutes.
Many people stay on this branch for
maintenance of a healthy, all-around fit lifestyle. The next three branches are
for those who seek to become high performance athletes, so I'll just touch on
This limb gets you
faster by doing "interval training" which simply means mixing hard training in
Zones 4 and 5 with easy training in Zones 1 and 2.
This branch is for
serious athletes who want to race at their best. Please refer to Edwards'
latest book SMART HEART (206 pages, 1997) for more information on high
performance heart zone training.
I saved this for last
because it serves a vital function, especially for those who climb to the
higher branches where the oxygen grows ever so thin. Here you rest and exercise
simultaneously. By staying in low heart zones for short workouts, you can
recuperate from too much exercise, an illness or injury that forced you down
from higher branches.
I urge you to cross-train while in
each of these zones. This means varying the demands on your body by walking one
day, for example, biking the next, and swimming another.
My book Heart Zone Training gives a
number of sample training programs for each branch. It also describes how to
maintain a personal heart Zone Training log where you record your training in
various zones to evaluate your total effort over a period of time.
MOVE OUT SLOWLY
Exercise must fit you as
an individual. I'm convinced it's the integration of the mind, the body, and
the spirit that works in the log in run.
If you've been working
out regularly, you may find yourself reaching for another level of fitness. If
you're a beginner or haven't worked out for more than two months, commit
yourself to the Base Branch of the Training Tree for just one month.
Remember, the whole point
is to get going. You'll begin to see positive benefits as you feel more energy
and sleep better. I predict you'll also feel a real boost to your self-esteem
that will make it fun to keep going.
And you might keep in
mind the mantra that my friend Sara recites on those days when training takes
some extra efforts and there is an addition to the grand kid number. "It's not
that I have to do this," she says. "It's that I can."
SIDEBAR: BEFORE YOU START
If you have not been
training regularly, answer these questions first:
Are you a man over 40 or a woman over
Have you ever been told you have heart
problems, high blood pressure, or a bone or joint problem, such as arthritis,
that has been or could be aggravated by certain types of exercise?
Do you frequently suffer from chest pains,
feel faint or have dizzy spells?
Are you taking prescription medication,
such as those for high blood pressure?
Is there another medical reason why you
think perhaps you should not exercise?
If you answered "yes" to
any of these questions, consult your healthcare provider before you being
WATCHING YOUR HEART RATE
As you train, it's
important to be able to quickly measure your heart rate. You can get a rough
estimate by finding your pulse in your wrist or a precise measurement by using
a heart monitor.
For the manual method,
take a watch and count for 6 seconds then multiply your county by ten to find
your heart rate. You only need a watch which has seconds but you can easily be
off by 10-20 bpm because of the short time counting interval.
You may, like I do,
prefer a heart monitor which I believe is the most powerful and motivational
piece of exercise equipment you can have. It consists of a chest transmitter
that you wear and a wireless receiver worn like a wristwatch.
Ten years ago, monitors
cost in the $500 price range. Today, they cost as low as $45. To see a complete
selection of heart rate monitors, click here.
SALLY EDWARDS BIOGRAPHY
Sally Edwards is
passionate about exercise and she practices what she preaches. She's a ranked
"ultra" athlete who's finished fourteen Ironman triathlons and numerous other
In 1994, she set
the woman's record for the Iditashoe, a 100 mile snowshoe event in Alaska. In
1995 and again in 1996 she participated in the 370-mile Eco Challenge adventure
This past August
her women's team finished first in the 3,200 mile cross country bicycle race,
Race Across America in 7 days and 22 hours. To celebrate her 50th birthday the
next month she captained a four-person team racing in China in seven sports
including kayaking, off-road inline skating, mountain climbing and more. In
October, she finished her fourteenth Ironman Triathlon in Hawaii which includes
a 2.4 mile swim, 112 miles by bike, then a full 26.2 mile
Edwards holds a
graduate degree in exercise physiology from Berkeley and a master's degree in
business. She has authored eleven books and is noted for her inspirational
public speaking and support of charitable concerns , especially The Susan G.
Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. A Sacramento, California resident, she served
in Viet Nam with the Red Cross.