Dangers Of Excess Body Fat
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Most people's primary
motivation for weight management is to improve their appearance. Equally
important, however, are the many other benefits of proper nutrition and regular
through reduction of excess body fat plays a vital role in maintaining good
health and fighting disease. In fact, medical evidence shows that obesity poses
a major threat to health and longevity. (The most common definition of obesity
is more than 25 percent body fat for men and more than 32 percent for women.)
An estimated one in three Americans has some excess body fat; an estimated 20
percent are obese.
Excess body fat is
linked to major physical threats like heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
(Three out of four Americans die of either heart disease or cancer each year;
according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey,
approximately 80 percent of those deaths are associated with life-style
factors, including inactivity.)
For example, if you're
obese, it takes more energy for you to breathe because your heart has to work
harder to pump blood to the lungs and to the excess fat throughout the body.
This increased work load can cause your heart to become enlarged and can result
in high blood pressure and life-threatening erratic heartbeats.
Obese people also tend
to have high cholesterol levels, making them more prone to arteriosclerosis, a
narrowing of the arteries by deposits of plaque. This becomes life-threatening
when blood vessels become so narrow or blocked that vital organs like the
brain, heart or kidneys are deprived of blood. Additionally, the narrowing of
the blood vessels forces the heart to pump harder, and blood pressure rises.
High blood pressure itself poses several health risks, including heart attack,
kidney failure, and stroke. About 25 percent of all heart and blood vessel
problems are associated with obesity.
Clinical studies have
found a relationship between excess body fat and the incidence of cancer. By
itself, body fat is thought to be a storage place for carcinogens
(cancer-causing chemicals) in both men and women. In women, excess body fat has
been linked to a higher rate of breast and uterine cancer; in men, the threat
comes from colon and prostate cancer.
There is also a
delicate balance between blood sugar, body fat, and the hormone insulin. Excess
blood sugar is stored in the liver and other vital organs; when the organs are
"full," the excess blood sugar is converted to fat. As fat cells themselves
become full, they tend to take in less blood sugar. In some obese people, the
pancreas produces more and more insulin, which the body can't use, to regulate
blood sugar levels, and the whole system becomes overwhelmed. This poor
regulation of blood sugar and insulin results in diabetes, a disease with
long-term consequences, including heart disease, kidney failure, blindness,
amputation, and death. Excess body fat is also linked to gall bladder disease,
gastro-intestinal disease, sexual dysfunction, osteoarthritiis, and
Fat Reduces Disease Risk
The good news is that
reducing body fat reduces the risk of disease. At the University of Pittsburgh,
researchers studied 159 people as they followed a weight management program.
The subjects were under age 45 and 30-70 pounds overweight. Those subjects who
were able to shed just 10-15 percent of their weight and keep it off during the
18-month study showed significant improvement in HDL cholesterol and
triglyceride levels, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure. In fact, according
to the New England Journal of Medicine, body fat reduction is a more
powerful modulator of cardiac structure than drug therapy.
For people with a
family history of heart disease, an active lifestyle can slow or stop the
process for all but those with serious genetic disorders. Studies by Dean
Ornish, MD, have shown that a comprehensive intervention program that includes
regular physical activity, a low-fat diet and a stress reduction program can
even reverse the heart disease process.
Evidence also shows
that an active lifestyle and its help in reducing body fat is associated with a
reduced risk for some types of cancers: prostate for men, breast and uterine
cancers for women. (Frisch, et al 1985)
In addition, regular
physical activity and a low-fat diet are successful in treating non-insulin
dependent diabetes (NIDDM); for some patients, it has reduced or eliminated the
need for insulin substitutes. In general, regularly active adults have 42
percent lower risk of developing NIDDM.
Happens to Most of Us
The average American
gains at least one pound a year after age 25. Think about it. If you're like
most Americans, by the time you're 50, you're likely to gain 25 pounds of fat,
or more. In addition, your metabolism is also slowing down, causing your body
to work less efficiently at burning the fat it has. At the same time, if you
don't exercise regularly, you lose a pound of muscle each year. Consequently,
people are not only increasing their body fat stores, increasing their risk of
disease, but they're also losing muscle, increasing the risk of injury,
decreasing activity performance, and further slowing down
Very few Americans
exercise in any significant way. The President's Council on Physical Fitness
and Sports estimates that only one in five Americans exercises for the healthy
minimum of 20 minutes, three or more days a week. In fact, the average American
gets less than 50 minutes of exercise per week. Even worse, two out of five
Americans are completely sedentary.
Healthy Eating and Physical Fitness
But there is hope.
Moderate weight loss--of fat, not muscle--and a healthy and active
lifestyle--not dieting--have been found to lower health risks and medical
problems in 90 percent of overweight patients, improving their heart function,
blood pressure, glucose tolerance, sleep disorders, and cholesterol levels, as
well as lowering their requirements for medication, lowering the incidence and
duration of hospitalization, and reducing post-operative complications eight
times less likely to die from cancer than the unfit, and 53 percent less likely
to die from other diseases. Fit people are also eight times less likely to die
from heart disease.
So, are you willing to
be patient and make gradual changes in your life that will lead to a healthier,
happier you? Once you have made the decision to go forward and accept change,
the hard part is over. Sure, there is plenty of work to be done, but it really
doesn't matter how long this new process takes. If you allow changes to take
place over several years, your body will adjust comfortably, and you will be
more likely to maintain the healthy lifestyle permanently.
When you begin
achieving improvements in energy and physical and psychological performance,
the fun and excitement you experience will make the change well worth the
effort. Action creates motivation! Good luck: I hope you enjoy all the
wonderful benefits of a safe and effective weight management
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